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A clearly defined problem is the first step to hit upon a workable solution

A clearly defined problem is the first step to hit upon a workable solution

Innovation Series by Rikus Grobler,,

In the previous delivery I made the case that innovation often starts with a good problem to solve. For instance, what is frustrating your customers or your staff, what is wasting resources, what inefficiencies in your processes are costing you money?

These are good places to start. If you have found a good problem to solve, the solution or answer may not be that straight forward, or perhaps you find a solution that may not be the best or optimal one. There are many useful problem solving techniques available and I think it is worthwhile to explore some of them and have a few in your idea generation arsenal, as opposed to waiting for lightning to strike with a winning idea.

I am not favouring one method above another, some are more applicable to specific situations than others, but I will shortly list and discuss the best-known technique called Creative Problem Solving (CPS), and list some other techniques I have found to be useful.

The goal is not to make you an expert in these techniques but rather to create awareness and entice you to try them out when you are trying to solve a complex problem. You may just be surprised with the results.

Problem Solving Techniques

First a bit of history. Alex Osborn, founder of the Creative Education Foundation, developed CPS in the 1940s, along with the term “brainstorming.”

In short, CPS asks you to separate your “divergent” and “convergent” thinking.

Divergent thinking is the process of generating lots of potential solutions and possibilities, otherwise known as brainstorming. And convergent thinking involves evaluating those options and choosing the most promising one.

There are numerous variants on CPS, although they differ in the details rather than the overall framework.

The approach I recommend involves the following steps: 1. Clarify and identify the problem. 2. Research the problem. 3. Formulate creative challenges. 4. Generate ideas. 5. Combine and evaluate the ideas. 6. Draw up an action plan. 7. Implement the ideas.

I will discuss each of these steps in brief (courtesy of Jeffrey Baumgartner at, an old friend of mine), but there is a wealth of information on this technique available on the Internet and even whole books dedicated to CPS if you want to learn more.

1. Clarify and identify the problem. Arguably the single most important step of CPS is identifying your real problem or goal. This may seem easy, but very often, what we believe to be the problem is not the real problem or goal. “Five whys” is a powerful problem-defining technique. Also decide what criteria you will eventually use to evaluate or judge the ideas. Are there budget limitations, a timeframe or other restrictions that will affect whether or not you can go ahead with an idea? What will you want to have accomplished with the ideas? What do you wish to avoid when you implement these ideas? Think about it and make a list of three to five evaluation criteria

2. Research the problem. The purpose of this step is to get a better understanding of the problem. Depending on the nature of the problem, you may need to do a great deal of research or very little. The best place to start these days is with your favourite search engine.

3. Formulate creative challenges. A creative challenge is basically a simple question framed to encourage suggestions or ideas. A challenge typically starts with “In what ways might we…?” or “How might we…?” or “How could we…?” Creative challenges should be simple, concise and focus on a single issue.

4. Generate ideas. Irrespective of your idea generation approach (discussed in previous articles), there are a few ground rules for this step. Write all ideas down (paper, computer, whiteboard, it does not matter). Write down every idea that is generated even if the idea is ludicrous, stupid or fails to solve the challenge, write it down. Make sure that no one criticizes anyone else’s ideas in any way. This is called “squelching”, because even the tiniest amount of criticism can discourage everyone in the group for sharing their more creative ideas. Set a time limit like 15 or 20 minutes. Once you have reached this time limit, compare ideas.

5. Combine and evaluate the ideas. After you have written down all of the ideas, take a break. It might just be an hour. It might be a day or more. Then go through the ideas. Related ideas can be combined together to form big ideas (or idea clusters). Then, using criteria you devised earlier, choose all of the ideas that broadly meet those criteria. Consider how well it meets each criterion and give it a rating of 0 to 5 points. Once you are finished, all of the ideas will have an evaluation score. Those ideas with the highest score best meet your criteria. They may not be your best ideas or your favourite ideas, but they are most likely to best solve your problem or enable you to achieve your goal.

6. Draw up an action plan. List the simple steps you need to take in order to implement your ideas. Ideas that involve a lot work to implement can be particularly intimidating. Breaking their implementation down into a series of readily accomplishable tasks makes these ideas easier to cope with and implement.

7. This step speaks for itself, and if the situation veers away from the steps in your action plan, don’t worry, rewrite your action plan!

Other techniques I have found useful that you can check out is SCAMPER and Six Thinking Hats of Dr Edward de Bono.

Next Time

Brainstorming is probably the longest-standing, best-known and most-used idea generation technique. However, it has received a lot of criticism over the last few years. In the next delivery, I will join the debate and share my opinions on the use of brainstorming as idea generation technique. I conclude with a short but powerful quote from John Dewey: “A problem well stated is a problem half solved.”


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About The Author

Rikus Grobler

Dr Rikus Grobler is a Namibian academic, inventor, entrepreneur, public speaker, and management consultant who specialises in the development of the innovation capability of companies and individuals. He holds degrees in Engineering and Law, and has an MBA and a PhD in Business Administration. He is a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) of the Project Management Institute (PMI) and he has also completed studies in design thinking and patenting. He has engaged leading Namibian organisations such as The Capricorn Group, Agra, Old Mutual Namibia, The Bank of Namibia, City of Windhoek, The Government of Namibia, Afrox Namibia, and Hollard Namibia. An experienced professional with a background in manufacturing, information technology, tertiary education and financial services, Dr Grobler has been involved in innovation management for the past 10 years and currently holds the position of Manager: Innovation for the Capricorn Group in Namibia. He is particularly interested in creativity, innovation and invention, and his mission is to provide performance-enhancing innovation management services that enable organisations and individuals to fully exploit their creative potential to reach their goals.

Following reverse listing, public can now acquire shareholding in Paratus Namibia


20 February 2020, Windhoek, Namibia: Paratus Namibia Holdings (PNH) was founded as Nimbus Infrastructure Limited (“Nimbus”), Namibia’s first Capital Pool Company listed on the Namibian Stock Exchange (“NSX”).

Although targeting an initial capital raising of N$300 million, Nimbus nonetheless managed to secure funding to the value of N$98 million through its CPC listing. With a mandate to invest in ICT infrastructure in sub-Sahara Africa, it concluded management agreements with financial partner Cirrus and technology partner, Paratus Telecommunications (Pty) Ltd (“Paratus Namibia”).

Paratus Namibia Managing Director, Andrew Hall

Its first investment was placed in Paratus Namibia, a fully licensed communications operator in Namibia under regulation of the Communications Regulatory Authority of Namibia (CRAN). Nimbus has since been able to increase its capital asset base to close to N$500 million over the past two years.

In order to streamline further investment and to avoid duplicating potential ICT projects in the market between Nimbus and Paratus Namibia, it was decided to consolidate the operations.

Publishing various circulars to shareholders, Nimbus took up a 100% shareholding stake in Paratus Namibia in 2019 and proceeded to apply to have its name changed to Paratus Namibia Holdings with a consolidated board structure to ensure streamlined operations between the capital holdings and the operational arm of the business.

This transaction was approved by the Competitions Commission as well as CRAN, following all the relevant regulatory approvals as well as the necessary requirements in terms of corporate governance structures.

Paratus Namibia has evolved as a fully comprehensive communications operator in Namibia and operates as the head office of the Paratus Group in Africa. Paratus has established a pan-African footprint with operations in six African countries, being: Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia.

The group has achieved many successes over the years of which more recently includes the building of the Trans-Kalahari Fibre (TKF) project, which connects from the West Africa Cable System (WACS) eastward through Namibia to Botswana and onward to Johannesburg. The TKF also extends northward through Zambia to connect to Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, which made Paratus the first operator to connect the west and east coast of Africa under one Autonomous System Number (ASN).

This means that Paratus is now “exporting” internet capacity to landlocked countries such as Zambia, Botswana, the DRC with more countries to be targeted, and through its extensive African network, Paratus is well-positioned to expand the network even further into emerging ICT territories.

PNH as a fully-listed entity on the NSX, is therefore now the 100% shareholder of Paratus Namibia thereby becoming a public company. PNH is ready to invest in the future of the ICT environment in Namibia. The public is therefore invited and welcome to acquire shares in Paratus Namibia Holdings by speaking to a local stockbroker registered with the NSX. The future is bright, and the opportunities are endless.