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Debt to equity, equity to debt, its all a natural part of the business cycle

Debt to equity, equity to debt, its all a natural part of the business cycle

A spattering of exchanges at the highest government level this week confirmed the notion that the economy currently runs on sentiment and not on investment and consumption as it should.

Early in the week the President told us things are under control and that the government is taking care of the backlog in payments to construction companies. Then a day later the official opposition retorted with a rather scathing reply, telling us everything is not OK and that the President’s view is flawed.

Still, another day later, a bank tried to tell us we entered a full-blown recession in June this year, although I suspect they actually meant June last year.

Who is to be believed?

The economy is in a consolidation phase and will remain so for this quarter and the next, but I do not believe it is in recession. It was in a recession for three quarters, two in 2016 and the first calendar quarter of 2017. Preliminary indications are that it grew modestly in the second calendar quarter of this year. That quarter ended on 30 June, but there are no statistics available as of yet, to tell us what the outcome of that quarter was. That information we’ll only start getting from the middle of September.

If I make the statement that the economy is in a consolidation phase, it becomes necessary to define clearly what is a consolidation phase, what are the characteristics, and how does one know when consolidation has come to an end.

The economy entered a technical recession in the second quarter last year, but that is not a calendar quarter, it is the fiscal quarter, so it means the period July, August and September. Many analysts refer to it as a technical recession because, by definition recessions are measured in quarters and you have to have three of these, back to back, before it is deemed a recession.

For instance, the economy can be in recession for one quarter or even two when growth is marginal but then grows slightly in the other two. If it turns out that over the four quarters, be it a calendar year or a fiscal year, the economy is actually bigger than at the beginning, it means it has expanded, regardless by how much or how little. The two negative quarters are then deemed a technical recession.

If I look at eight specific macro-economic indicators (which I discussed in a previous article), I have good reasons to believe the second calendar quarter this year, was positive. However, I shall be the first person to stress that this growth will be very small, and may only reflect in statistics a year from now. I think the important point is to try and establish whether the contraction has stopped because by definition that is the end of the recession. And I believe that is what happened.

During times of profit, companies turn debt into equity and during times of loss, the reverse happens, equity is turned into debt. So, in a consolidation phase, companies pull out all stops to reduce their losses. The typical strategies happen on many fronts, and cover many aspects of a business. But often the results are not immediately apparent.

They therefore go into a savings mode, cutting all unnecessary expenses, consolidating their debt positions, fall back on reserves, and ensure that they have adequate funding in place to continue operations. In the meantime, they have to continue trading, pay their employees and service their liabilities, both to their bank and to their suppliers.

This has a ripple effect on the rest of the economy. Everything slows down, liquidity is impaired and there is a serious shortage in available credit.

The government, viewed as a business does not escape the necessity for cost-cutting and streamlining. It also has to align its operations to new realities during recessions.

But at some point, equilibrium is restored, only we do not know it immediately because it does not show up in financial results. But the bleeding has stopped and that is when the economy goes into consolidation phase, meaning maintaining the status quo just to be able to continue to operate. This applies equally to the private sector and to the government.

Then at some point, companies notice their sales are improving, tentative at first, and with a little more momentum. But they do not trust the monthly figures, hence they remain in consolidation phase, hanging back to see which way things are going and whether the slight improvement was just a blip or the beginning of a trend. This may carry on for six months, nine months or even a year.

Our scare started in earnest around August last year, so we are now almost a full year into the process. It will take some more time before financial managers are prepared to ask their boards to resume intended investments.

When this happens, growth is restored, companies hire more people and more money starts flowing into the system. This leads to improved bank liquidity which is the precondition for improved credit conditions. At this point, the economy starts generating its own new momentum and growth returns.

Based on my own assessment, I do not think we are far away from that point, i.e. the end of the consolidation phase.

About The Author

Daniel Steinmann

Brief CV of Daniel Steinmann. Born 24 February 1961, Johannesburg. Educated at the University of Pretoria: BA, BA(hons), BD. Postgraduate degrees are in Philosophy and Divinity. Editor of the Namibia Economist since 1991. Daniel Steinmann has steered the Economist as editor for the past 29 years. The Economist started as a monthly free-sheet, then moved to a weekly paper edition (1996 to 2016), and on 01 December 2016 to a daily digital newspaper at It is the first Namibian newspaper to go fully digital. Daniel Steinmann is an authority on macro-economics having established a sound record of budget analysis, strategic planning and assessing the impact of policy formulation. For eight years, he hosted a weekly talk-show on NBC Radio, explaining complex economic concepts to a lay audience in a relaxed, conversational manner. He was a founding member of the Editors' Forum of Namibia. Over the years, he has mentored hundreds of journalism students as interns and as young professional jourlists. He regularly helps economics students, both graduate and post-graduate, to prepare for examinations and moderator reviews. He is the Namibian respondent for the World Economic Survey conducted every quarter for the Ifo Center for Business Cycle Analysis and Surveys at the University of Munich in Germany. He is frequently consulted by NGOs and international analysts on local economic trends and developments. Send comments to

Following reverse listing, public can now acquire shareholding in Paratus Namibia


20 February 2020, Windhoek, Namibia: Paratus Namibia Holdings (PNH) was founded as Nimbus Infrastructure Limited (“Nimbus”), Namibia’s first Capital Pool Company listed on the Namibian Stock Exchange (“NSX”).

Although targeting an initial capital raising of N$300 million, Nimbus nonetheless managed to secure funding to the value of N$98 million through its CPC listing. With a mandate to invest in ICT infrastructure in sub-Sahara Africa, it concluded management agreements with financial partner Cirrus and technology partner, Paratus Telecommunications (Pty) Ltd (“Paratus Namibia”).

Paratus Namibia Managing Director, Andrew Hall

Its first investment was placed in Paratus Namibia, a fully licensed communications operator in Namibia under regulation of the Communications Regulatory Authority of Namibia (CRAN). Nimbus has since been able to increase its capital asset base to close to N$500 million over the past two years.

In order to streamline further investment and to avoid duplicating potential ICT projects in the market between Nimbus and Paratus Namibia, it was decided to consolidate the operations.

Publishing various circulars to shareholders, Nimbus took up a 100% shareholding stake in Paratus Namibia in 2019 and proceeded to apply to have its name changed to Paratus Namibia Holdings with a consolidated board structure to ensure streamlined operations between the capital holdings and the operational arm of the business.

This transaction was approved by the Competitions Commission as well as CRAN, following all the relevant regulatory approvals as well as the necessary requirements in terms of corporate governance structures.

Paratus Namibia has evolved as a fully comprehensive communications operator in Namibia and operates as the head office of the Paratus Group in Africa. Paratus has established a pan-African footprint with operations in six African countries, being: Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia.

The group has achieved many successes over the years of which more recently includes the building of the Trans-Kalahari Fibre (TKF) project, which connects from the West Africa Cable System (WACS) eastward through Namibia to Botswana and onward to Johannesburg. The TKF also extends northward through Zambia to connect to Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, which made Paratus the first operator to connect the west and east coast of Africa under one Autonomous System Number (ASN).

This means that Paratus is now “exporting” internet capacity to landlocked countries such as Zambia, Botswana, the DRC with more countries to be targeted, and through its extensive African network, Paratus is well-positioned to expand the network even further into emerging ICT territories.

PNH as a fully-listed entity on the NSX, is therefore now the 100% shareholder of Paratus Namibia thereby becoming a public company. PNH is ready to invest in the future of the ICT environment in Namibia. The public is therefore invited and welcome to acquire shares in Paratus Namibia Holdings by speaking to a local stockbroker registered with the NSX. The future is bright, and the opportunities are endless.